Pietra Dura (Plural: Pietre Dure) first appeared in Rome in the 16th century, reaching its full maturity in Florence. Pietre dure is an Italian plural meaning "Hard Rocks" or Hard Stones. In Italian, the term embraces all gem engraving and hard stone carving, which is the artistic carving of three-dimensional objects in semi-precious stone
Its also known as Parchin Kari or Pich,chi Kari in South Asia.
It’s a technique of using cut and fitted highly-polished real stones and gemstones to create designs. After the work is assembled loosely, is fixed with adhesive stone-by-stone to a substrate after having previously been sliced and cut in different shape sections; and then assembled together so precisely that the contact between each section was practically invisible. Stability was achieved by grooving the undersides of the stones so that they interlocked.
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